HOW TO CREATE A FIRE EVACUATION PLAN FOR YOUR BUSINESS
When a fire threatens your employees and business, chaos and confusion can reign.
Construction fires often move so quickly that workers are forced to do what they can to survive. When an office tower in Sydney, Australia caught fire earlier this year, construction workers on scaffolding had to scramble to safety when the exterior of the building was transformed into a wall of flames.
Wildfires can also be a threat if they jump containment efforts or change direction. Damage to physical structures can run into the millions.
While fires themselves are dangerous enough, the threat can be compounded by panic and chaos if your company is unprepared. The best way to prevent this from happening is to have a detailed and rehearsed fire evacuation plan.
Here is our 7-step plan to help guide you through creating a fire evacuation plan for your business:
- Imagine Various Scenarios
When planning your business fire evacuation plan, start with some basic questions to explore the primary threats your business may face in the case of a fire.
Where might fires break out?
The National Fire Protection Association points out that during the five-year period from 2007-2011, an average of 3,340 fires occurred in office properties per year. Most of those fires were caused by cooking equipment, intentional acts, and electrical malfunctions. A later analysis by the U.S. Fire Administration confirmed that cooking was the leading cause of nonresidential building fires for the past 10 years.
How and why would they start?
Take some time to brainstorm reasons a fire would threaten your business. Do you have a kitchen in your office? Are people using portable space heaters or personal fridges? Do wildfires threaten your location(s) each summer? Make sure you understand the threats and how they might find their way to your business.
Since cooking fires are at the top of the list for office properties, put “house rules” in place about microwaving and other office kitchen appliances. Forbid hot plates, in-office microwaves, and other cooking appliances.
What if “X” happens?
Make “X” business specific, such as “What if we are evacuated by authorities and we have fifteen refrigerated trucks loaded with our weekly ice cream deliveries?” “What if we have to abandon our headquarters with very little notice?” It’s a good idea to have a list of “What if X happens” questions and your answers. Thinking through different scenarios moves a fire from something no one imagines into the collective consciousness of your business.
- Establish roles and responsibilities
When a fire emerges and your business must evacuate, employees will look to their leaders for reassurance and guidance. Create a clear chain of command that states who has the authority to order an evacuation.
Here are the main roles you should consider creating as part of your fire evacuation plan:
Chief fire warden. This employee has overall responsibility for a fire event, including planning and preparation.
Assistant fire warden. This person should use the mass alert system to alert employees, call the fire department, and gather reports.
Route guides. Route guides play an important role in making sure that routes are clear and evacuation is orderly and calm.
Fire extinguishers. Some people want to “fight the fire” with a portable fire extinguisher. You never want to fight a fire that has left its source of origin. If you can’t bring a fire under control in 30 seconds, then stop, close the door, and escape to safety.
Floor monitors. The floor monitor is the last person out after making sure the area is clear.
- Create a communication plan
During a fire drill, designate someone (like the assistant fire warden) whose primary job is to disseminate information to employees, customers, news media, and where applicable, other entities such as the community, organizational management, suppliers, transportation partners and government officials.
This person should be carefully selected. They need to be reliable, present, and able to react quickly. They may have to work out of an alternate office if the primary office is affected by fire (or the threat of fire). You should also train a back-up as this is a critical position.
Once you have identified this critical role, you need to provide them with a redundant, multi-channel communication system. Reacting to a fire can be very chaotic. People may not have access to their normal channels of communication, they may forget to check, and networks could fail. Being able to communicate through email, phone, text, and mobile app will ensure your communication gets the broadest distribution possible. An intuitive tool like AlertMedia makes this seamless.
Once that tool is in place, your communications team will need to let the appropriate stakeholders know how the situation impacts the business, what actions they should take, next steps and more.
- Plan and map routes
A good fire evacuation plan for your business will include primary and secondary escape routes. Clear signs should mark all the exit routes. For large offices, make multiple maps and post them so employees know the evacuation routes.
Once your people are out of the building, where do they go?
Designate an assembly area for employees to gather. The assistant fire warden should be at the assembly area collecting a head count and providing updates. If the fire warden is using AlertMedia to communicate he/she can use the survey feature to quickly determine who is safe and who is still unaccounted for.
Make sure the escape routes and the assembly area can accommodate the expected number of employees who will be evacuating.
- Know your tools and inspect them
When was the last time you inspected those dusty office fire extinguishers? We thought so.
The National Fire Protection Association recommends refilling reusable fire extinguishers every 10 years and replace disposable ones every 12 years.
While you’re at it, make sure you have up-to-date and operable:
? Fire alarms
? Emergency lighting
? Fire doors (if applicable)
? Escape ladders (if applicable)
- Rehearse fire evacuation
If you have children in school, you know that they practice “fire drills” often, sometimes monthly.
Because regular rehearsals minimize confusion and show the kids through repetition how the fire drill should work. A safe outcome is more likely to occur with calm students who know what to do in the event of a fire.
Adults should do the same!
Key fire evacuation leaders should meet quarterly and plan for an annual or semi-annual full rehearsal of the company fire evacuation plan. Here is a detailed guide on how to conduct a fire drill at work.
For bonus points make a mini-fire evacuation drill part of a new employee’s onboarding process.
- Follow-up and reporting
Your company’s leadership needs to be communicating and tracking progress in real-time. Fires move quickly, and seconds could make a difference.
Surveys are an easy way to get status updates from your employees. The assistant fire marshal can simply send out a survey asking for a status update and monitor responses in real time to see who’s safe. Most importantly, the assistant fire marshal can see who hasn’t responded, and direct resources to assist those in need.
The biggest challenge you will face is getting reports from people who aren’t in the office. There’s inevitably going to be someone out sick or on vacation. These people obviously won’t be at the rally point so you may start to wonder whether they made it out of the office safely. Make sure you include response options such as “I’m not in the office today” in your surveys to account for this and clarify everyone’s situation.